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English Reading Comprehension Set 161

Directions (1-10): In the passage given below there are 10 blanks, each followed by a word given in bold. Each blank has four alternative words given in options (A),(B),(C) and (D). You have to tell which word will best suit the respective blank. Mark (E) as your answer if the word given in bold after the blank is your answer i.e “No change required”.

The increasing cost of higher education in the United States has been a --(1)---(contrast) topic for debate in recent decades. American society ---(2)---(denigrate) the importance of education after high school, yet the cost of undergraduate and advanced degrees continually rises at a greater rate than ---(3)----(inflammation).

According to the Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, cost factors
prevent 48% of college-qualified high school graduates from ---(4)----(pursuing) further education (McKeon, 2004, p. 45). The current system requires the majority of students to ----(5)----(dissipate) extensive debt with the expectation that they gain ----(6)----(unprofitable) post-graduate employment to repay their loans.

The cost of higher education raises several ---(7)----(ethical) issues. Among these are the perpetuation of the cycle of debt in American commercial society, the ---(8)----(hypothetical) of differing higher education institutions and cost, and the resulting socioeconomic and racial inequities in college demographics. Both an examination of the current trends and figures and a closer look at a real life example show the troublesome state of higher education and its ---(9)---(affect) on our commercial society.

Research indicates a steep upward trend in the cost of higher education throughout the 20th century. In recent decades, America has witnessed a widening gap between inflation and tuition. An incoming freshman at a typical college ---(10)---(infer) charges for tuition, university fees, books, room and board, and other miscellaneous items.

(e) No change required

(e) No change required

(e) No change required

(e) No change required

(e) No change required

(e) No change required

(e) No change required

(e) No change required

(e) No change required

(e) No change required


S1. Ans.(c)
Sol. continue (verb), gerund or present participle: continuing
Meaning: persist in an activity or process. In the given blank, we need a verb form
(present perfect continuous tense) that express the idea of continuity. hence, 'continuing' is correct word choice. 

S2. Ans.(d)
Sol. "American society "emphasizes" the importance of education after high school".
emphasizes is correct word choice in the given context.
denigrate (verb): criticize unfairly; disparage. denigrate is totally irrelevant word.

S3. Ans.(a)
Sol. inflation meaning: a general increase in prices and fall in the purchasing value
of money. In this sentence, the comparison is done with inflation.
"the cost of undergraduate and advanced degrees continually rises at a greater rate than inflation."
inflammatory (adjective) meaning: relating to or causing inflammation of a part of the body. this is totally out of the context word.

S4. Ans.(e)
Sol. pursuing- is correct word choice.
pursue-to carry on or continue (a course of action, a train of thought, an inquiry,
studies, etc.).

S5. Ans.(b)
Sol. accumulate-gather together or acquire an increasing number or quantity of.
accumulate correctly fits in the context of the sentence.
"The current system requires the majority of students to accumulate extensive debt with the expectation that"
dissipate meaning-(with reference to a feeling or emotion) disappear or cause to
disappear. hence, dissipate is totally irrelevant word to fit in this context.

S6. Ans.(c)
Sol. lucrative-producing a great deal of profit. according to the context we need
positive word that express profit-making. hence lucrative is correct word choice.

S7. Ans.(e)
Sol. ethical-elating to moral principles or the branch of knowledge dealing with these. ethical is correct word choice and express the idea correctly conveyed in the sentence.

S8. Ans.(a)
Sol. hierarchy-a system in which members of an organization or society are ranked according to relative status or authority.
"the hierarchy of differing higher education institutions and cost, and the resulting socioeconomic and racial inequities in college demographics." hierarchy fits in the context of the sentence correctly.

S9. Ans.(d)
Sol. effect is a noun and affect is a verb. in this context, we need a noun form. hence 'effect' is correct word choice.

S10. Ans.(b)
Sol. incur-become subject to (something unwelcome or unpleasant) as a result of one's own behaviour or actions.
infer-deduce or conclude (something) from evidence and reasoning rather than from explicit statements. infers is correct choice.

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